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Lucrative Targets: The U.S. Air Force in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations

Lucrative Targets: The U.S. Air Force in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

In early August 1990, Iraq attacked Kuwait, its small neighbor to the south, with overwhelming forces. U.S. Army General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Commander in Chief, United States Central Command (USCENTCOM), later recalled how the sudden Iraqi mobilization during late July had misled some U.S. military leaders. “Iraq had used the desert near Basra for training before,” he explained, “and at first we thought this might be merely another exercise…. But by the end of July, the Iraqis were no longer confined to the exercise area; they had fanned out southeast and southwest of Basra and pointed themselves toward the Kuwaiti border.” On August 2, heavy units of the Republican Guard Forces Command plunged across that frontier, leading a brutally swift assault. These elite troops quickly overran Kuwait, seized Kuwait City, and, on the second day of the invasion, moved rapidly toward the Saudi Arabian border. By August 6, elements of eleven divisions were either in or entering the small kingdom south of Iraq. These powerful forces firmly occupied Kuwait and stood poised to invade Saudi Arabia.

Publication Date:
Feb 24 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
150861430X / 9781508614302
Page Count:
262
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

16.95

On Target: Organizing and Executing the Strategic Air Campaign Against Iraq

On Target: Organizing and Executing the Strategic Air Campaign Against Iraq published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

The war in the Persian Gulf in 1991 capped an era of USAF modernization and enhanced readiness begun in the late 1970s and that continued through the 1980s. The long lead-time weapons acquisition and training programs, begun a
decade or more earlier, came to fruition against a far different opponent and in an unforeseen locale than that envisioned by their creators. The force designed to counter the superpower foe of the Cold War, the USSR, never fought a direct battle against that enemy during the existence of the Soviet Union. Instead, the USAF fought the first war of the so-called New World Order, a war that had as much in common with the colonial wars of the late nineteenth century as it had with the high-technology wars of the late twentieth century.
The USAF shouldered the bulk of the fighting for the first thirty-nine of the conflict’s forty-two days. This volume covers the air offensive against strategic military and economic targets within the pre-August 1990 borders of Iraq. The offensive air plan once again displayed the ability of the U.S. military to turn the necessity of improvisation into a virtue when, in mid-August 1990, an element
of the Air Staff in the Pentagon wrote the basis of the offensive plan in ten days.
The plan was founded upon the precepts of Col. John A. Warden III’s air power theories-centers of gravity, shock effect, and the importance of leadership-related targets. Once the outline plan reached the arena of operations, the U.S. Central
Air Forces (CENTAF), under the able leadership of Lt. Gen. Charles A. Horner, adopted the targeting philosophy of the plan and, after many modifications owing to new targets and an increased force structure, employed it with devastating effect.
The author describes not only the outstanding performance of USAF men and machines but also the difficulties and complexities of coordinating the many elements of air and staff operations. Among these were the complex coordination of the fighters with their tankers, the speedy transmission of data from the allseeing eyes of AWACS and JSTARS aircraft, the multiple bomb runs over chemical and biological warfare bunkers, and the shortcomings of certain types of
intelligence. All these factors impacted on mission effectiveness. The author also diagrams how outside influences-political pressure from neutrals, such as the Israelis, and from public news media-can affect the direction of the bombing effort.

Publication Date:
Feb 26 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1508644101 / 9781508644101
Page Count:
400
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

20.95

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Planning and Command and Control (Volume 1 of 6)

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Planning and Command and Control (Volume 1 of 6) published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

The focus of air planners was to envision the use of air power in achieving coalition objectives and military strategy. This report begins with the genesis of that plan with some background to place it within an historical perspective and traces its development through what existed on 16 January 1991.
The planning task force addresses three specific questions. First, what were the origins of the air campaign plan that was developed prior to the outbreak of the Gulf War in late July 1990? In brief, there were two: one, a series of contingency plans, the 1002 family of plans developed by planners for the region. In early August, however, the plan proved unable to provide the answers to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and threatened attack of Saudi Arabia. The second set of origins was the
scenario rehearsed during Exercise Internal Look, a Central Command (CENTCOM) wargame conducted only days before the Kuwaiti invasion.
Though time prevented planners from implementing solutions to problems encountered, the exercise did focus their attention on the Gulf and provided them with a precursor of the final air campaign.

Publication Date:
Feb 21 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1508562148 / 9781508562146
Page Count:
732
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

24.95

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Logistics And Support (Volume 3 of 6)

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Logistics And Support (Volume 3 of 6) published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

This report discusses logistics in the Persian Gulf War as it applies to all military operations and in particular to air operations. Simply put, how did the United States equip its forces for Desert Shield and Desert Storm? Logistics also includes functions for maintaining an air base and support services. These aspects of logistics will be covered in the two parts of this volume.
One of the simpler, but nonetheless comprehensive, definitions of logistics was documented by Baron Antoine Henri Jomini subsequent to the Napoleonic Wars, when he defined logistics as the “practical art of moving armies.”‘ A Joint Chiefs of Staff definition expands on Jomini’s version, expressing logistics as the science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. In its most comprehensive sense, those aspects of military operations which deal with: a. design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel; b. movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel; c. acquisition, or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities; and d. acquisition or furnishing of services. The Gulf War encompassed all of these aspects of logistics and did so, on a grand scale. One of the main reasons for success in this conflict was the ability of the U.S. military to respond logistically-to move, beddown, and sustain the combat forces. The primary focus of our survey was to examine airpower application in a theater devoid of prior operational presence. This unique environment presented airpower managers with severe challenges to assure efficient and effective application of combat force. We examine the state of logistics prior to the conflict, the characteristics of planning, the efforts to put combat and support elements in place, the support of air operations during combat; and in particular, how planners envisioned the role of logistics in supporting air forces to achieve Coalition objectives and execute military strategy.

Publication Date:
Feb 21 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1508562245 / 9781508562245
Page Count:
786
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10”
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

25.95

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Weapons, Tactics, and Training and Space Operations (Volume 4 of 6)

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Weapons, Tactics, and Training and Space Operations (Volume 4 of 6) published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

This report brings together analyses of three crucial determinants of an armed force’s overall capability:
* weapons-the tools used by the soldier, sailor, and airman,
* tactics-the ways in which the tools are used to produce desired effects and,
*training-the way in which the individual soldier, sailor, and airman acquires the skills required to combine weapons and tactics into the operational art of warfare.
The report focuses on the impact of these three elements on the application of air power projected by the U.S. and Coalition forces in the Gulf War. The information and conclusions presented provide background essential to a more complete understanding of the facts, principles, and precepts developed and discussed in other volumes of this study. The research to support this report was drawn from several sources. First and foremost, the extensive operational and technical expertise of the principal authors and contributors served as a reservoir of knowledge and background. Their primary search for information focused on intelligence estimates, unit reports, flight data bases, and earlier studies pertinent to the task. Additionally, the authors interviewed Gulf War participants from the United States and Coalition countries and obtained volumes of supporting documents and information now resting within the GWAPS archive. Because of time constraints and the ambitious scope of the task, some issues and topics within this report are either addressed only at the surface or not addressed at all. These issues are usually identified as areas for future study.

Publication Date:
Feb 21 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
150856261X / 9781508562610
Page Count:
538
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

22.95

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Operations and Effects and Effectiveness (Volume 2 of 6)

Gulf War Air Power Survey: Operations and Effects and Effectiveness (Volume 2 of 6) published on

Authored by Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force

In many ways “Desert Storm” represents a watershed in history; for much of the war, it consisted entirely of the application of massive doses of air power to the economic and bureaucratic infrastructure of Iraq and its military forces. How the Coalition applied air power differed greatly from previous wars in which air forces had played major roles. In this case, air power proved itself capable of use as both a rapier-like instrument and as a bludgeon. By itself, the air campaign achieved considerable effects on the Iraqi military, its infrastructure, its command and control, and even the political stability of the Bathist tyranny. Yet many things remain unclear about the campaign’s impact on Iraq. Even the question of how many tanks, armored personnel carriers, artillery pieces, and other numerical indices of military power the campaign destroyed or damaged is open to dispute. As for the impact of air power on Iraq’s military system, its military industrial complex, and even the regime itself, much of that remains opaque. Nevertheless, even with the imponderables the air campaign suggests that the military balance between air and ground has changed in fundamental ways. Bernard Trainor, the former Marine Corps general, former New York Times military correspondent and current professor at the JFK School of Government at Harvard, underlined that shift in a lecture to the Naval War College in October 1991. He noted that for the first time in history the ground campaign had supported the air campaign. This study focuses on the air war’s operational conduct against Iraq and its military forces. For our purposes, the USAF’s 1992 basic doctrinal manual provides a useful definition of “operational art,” the focus of this report: Operational art. The employment of military forces to attain strategic or operational objectives in a theater of war or in a theater of operations through the design, organization, and conduct of campaigns and major operations: Operational art translates theater strategy into operational and, ultimately, tactical action. This report, consequently, focuses on the employment of air power as a part of Coalition military efforts to destroy Iraq’s military forces and potential, and to liberate Kuwait. Within that framework, the air campaign attempted a wide variety of objectives. This apparent diversion of effort reflected both the enonnous resources mobilized in the Gulf by the Coalition and fears of military commanders that the Iraqis would exit the war at an early point, thereby preserving much of their military power.

Publication Date:
Feb 23 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1508563047 / 9781508563044
Page Count:
828
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

27.95

Jayhawk: The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War

Jayhawk: The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War published on

Authored by Stephen A. Bourque

Jayhawk! The VII Corps in the Persian Gulf War is a highly readable account of the involvement of Lt. Gen. Frederick M. Franks’s command in Operation DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM. The arrival of Jayhawk-the historic nickname for corps having the number seven-with its armor heavy forces gave the coalition the offensive option to drive the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait, but the rapid conclusion of the popularly known 100-Hour War with smart bombs, precision-guided weapons, and efficient electronics fostered what Stephen A. Bourque calls the illusion of a simple, almost push-button, operation with a preordained outcome. Arguing that the endeavor was anything but simple, Bourque tells the full story of the VII Corps from its deployment to Saudi Arabia, through its phases of preparation and its offensive against the Iraqi Army, to finally its return to Europe and the United States, in the process bringing alive the scale and complexities involved in assembling, moving, and controlling men and materiel. Bourque’s volume captures valuable combat lessons, especially the singular performance of General Franks and the effectiveness of the U.S. Army’s technology, training, leadership, and warfighting doctrine. It is a must-read for all soldiers.

Publication Date:
Jan 22 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1507660618 / 9781507660614
Page Count:
530
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

22.95

Airpower Advantage: Planning the Gulf War Air Campaign 1989-1991

Airpower Advantage: Planning the Gulf War Air Campaign 1989-1991 published on

Authored by Diane T. Putney, U.S. Air Force, Office of Air Force History

American air power is a dominant force in today’s world. Its ascendancy, evolving in the half century since the end of World War II, became evident during the first Gulf War. Although a great deal has been written about military operations in Desert Shield and Desert Storm, this deeply researched volume by Dr. Diane Putney probes the little-known story of how the Gulf War air campaign plan came to fruition.
Based on archival documentation and interviews with USAF planners, this work takes the reader into the planning cells where the difficult work of building an air campaign plan was accomplished on an around-the-clock basis. The tension among air planners is palpable as Dr. Putney traces the incremental progress and friction along the way. The author places the complexities of the planning process within the con- text of coalition objectives. All the major players are here: President George H. W. Bush, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, General Colin Powell, General Chuck Horner, and Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney. The air planning process generated much debate and friction, but resulted in great success – a 43-day conflict with minimum casualties. Dr. Putney’s rendering of this behind-the-scenes evolution of the planning process, in its complexity and even suspense, provides a fascinating window into how wars are planned and fought today and what might be the implications for the future.

Publication Date:
Feb 02 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1507814798 / 9781507814796
Page Count:
494
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

24.95

From Fulda Gap to Kuwait: U.S. Army, Europe and Gulf War

From Fulda Gap to Kuwait: U.S. Army, Europe and Gulf War published on

Authored by Department of the Army

From the Fulda Gap to Kuwait describes how the United States Army, Europe, under the command of General Crosbie E. Saint, supported the coalition’s armed response to the 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. With the changed threat environment of the post-Cold War period as a backdrop, Stephen P. Gehring credits effective planning and preparations in the late 1980s for USAREUR’s successful transition in 1990 from a basically static heavy force focused on the defense of Europe to a smaller mobile heavy force capable of deploying rapidly for contingency operations anywhere in the European Command’s area of responsibility. This initiative, according to Gehring, had irrevocably launched USAREUR on a new phase in its history. He examines in depth how USAREUR planned, assembled, prepared, and deployed its personnel, equipment, and war reserves to the Persian Gulf to stop and reverse Iraqi aggression, providing the decisive armored units and firepower that proved so critical to the success of coalition operations in Southwest Asia. He also covers contingency and logistical planning, the programs to support the residual community in Europe, and the subsequent redeployment and force reduction. His study of the versatility, deployability, and lethality of USAREUR forces underscores the value of a trained and ready Army, and those now involved in planning and executing Army Transformation will learn much from this remarkable story.

Publication Date:
Jan 07 2015
ISBN/EAN13:
1506096875 / 9781506096872
Page Count:
394
Binding Type:
US Trade Paper
Trim Size:
7″ x 10″
Language:
English
Color:
Black and White
Related Categories:
History / Military / Persian Gulf War

19.95

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