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R44100 – Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2017) – 10/7/2016

R44100 – Use of the Annual Appropriations Process to Block Implementation of the Affordable Care Act (FY2011-FY2017) – 10/7/2016 published on

Author: C. Stephen Redhead, Specialist in Health Policy; Ada S. Cornell, Information Research Specialist
Pages: 22

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), the health reform law enacted in March 2010. Since the ACA’s enactment, lawmakers opposed to specific provisions in the ACA or the entire law have repeatedly debated its implementation and considered bills to repeal, defund, delay, or otherwise amend the law. In addition to considering ACA repeal or amendment in authorizing legislation, some lawmakers have used the annual appropriations process in an effort to eliminate funding for the ACA’s implementation and address other aspects of the law. ACA-related provisions have been included in enacted appropriations acts each year since the ACA became law. In October 2013, disagreement between the Republican-led House and Democratic-controlled Senate over the inclusion of ACA language in a temporary spending bill for the new fiscal year (i.e., FY2014) resulted in a partial shutdown of government operations that lasted 16 days. Bills: H.R. 1473, H.R. 1, H.R. 3070, H.R. 2434, H.R. 6020, H.R. 2786, H.R. 5016, H.R. 2995, H.R. 3020, H.R. 940, S. 3686, S. 1599, S. 1573, S. 3295, S. 3301, S. 1284, S. 1371

R44620 – Biologics and Biosimilars: Background and Key Issues – 9/20/2016

R44620 – Biologics and Biosimilars: Background and Key Issues – 9/20/2016 published on

Author: Judith A. Johnson, Specialist in Biomedical Policy
Pages: 32

A biological product, or biologic, is a preparation, such as a drug or a vaccine, that is made from living organisms. Compared with conventional chemical drugs, biologics are relatively large and complex molecules. They may be composed of proteins (and/or their constituent amino acids), carbohydrates (such as sugars), nucleic acids (such as DNA), or combinations of these substances. Biologics may also be cells or tissues used in transplantation. A biosimilar, sometimes referred to as a follow-on biologic, is a therapeutic drug that is similar but not structurally identical to the brand-name biologic made by a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company. In contrast to the relatively simple structure and manufacture of chemical drugs, biosimilars, with their more complex nature and method of manufacture, will not be identical to the brand-name product, but may instead be shown to be highly similar. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates both biologics and chemical drugs.

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R43909 – CHIP and the ACA Maintenance of Effort (MOE) Requirement: In Brief – 9/19/2016

R43909 – CHIP and the ACA Maintenance of Effort (MOE) Requirement: In Brief – 9/19/2016 published on

Author: Alison Mitchell, Analyst in Health Care Financing; Evelyne P. Baumrucker, Analyst in Health Care Financing
Pages: 9

This report discusses the ACA MOE requirement for children if federal CHIP funding expires. It begins with a brief background about CHIP, including information regarding program design and financing. The report then describes the ACA child MOE requirements for CHIP Medicaid expansion programs and for separate CHIP programs and discusses potential coverage implications.

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R43949 – Federal Financing for the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) – 9/19/2016

R43949 – Federal Financing for the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) – 9/19/2016 published on

Author: Alison Mitchell, Analyst in Health Care Financing
Pages: 15

This report provides an overview of CHIP financing, beginning with an explanation of the federal matching rate. It describes various aspects of federal CHIP funding, such as the federal appropriation, state allotments, the Child Enrollment Contingency Fund, redistribution funds, and outreach and enrollment grants. The report ends with a section about the future of CHIP funding, including the options for extending CHIP funding and what could happen if federal funding expires.

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IF10461 – Patient Access to Health Information in the Digital Age – 8/31/2016

IF10461 – Patient Access to Health Information in the Digital Age – 8/31/2016 published on

Author: C. Stephen Redhead
Pages: 2

In 2000, the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule established a set of federal standards for the use and disclosure of personal health information. The Privacy Rule also gave individuals the right of access to their health information. In the years since the Privacy Rule took effect, individuals have often complained that health care providers place undue restrictions on that access, in violation of HIPAA.

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IF10460 – Regulation of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs – 8/30/2016

IF10460 – Regulation of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs – 8/30/2016 published on

Author: Agata Dabrowska
Pages: 2

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the safety and effectiveness of drug products sold in the United States. FDA?s regulatory authority covers both prescription and nonprescription (i.e., over-the-counter, or OTC) drugs, among other things.

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IF10401 – Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes: A Vector Control Technology for Reducing Zika Virus Transmission – 8/16/2016

IF10401 – Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes: A Vector Control Technology for Reducing Zika Virus Transmission – 8/16/2016 published on

Author: Tadlock Cowan
Pages: 2

In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika virus a ?public health emergency of international concern.? WHO defines such a public health emergency (1) to constitute a public health risk to other states through the international spread of disease, and (2) to potentially require a coordinated international response. This definition implies a situation that is serious, unusual, or unexpected; carries implications for public health beyond the affected state?s national border; and may require immediate international action. (See CRS Insight IN10433, Zika Virus: Global Health Considerations.)

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