Skip to content

Content Header

R42738 – Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2015 – 10/7/2016

R42738 – Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2015 – 10/7/2016 published on

Author: Barbara Salazar Torreon, Analyst in Defense Budget and Military Manpower
Pages: 39

This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad, without reference to the magnitude of the given instance noted. The listing often contains references, especially from 1980 forward, to continuing military deployments, especially U.S. military participation in multinational operations associated with NATO or the United Nations. Most of these post-1980 instances are summaries based on presidential reports to Congress related to the War Powers Resolution. A comprehensive commentary regarding any of the instances listed is not undertaken here. The instances differ greatly in number of forces, purpose, extent of hostilities, and legal authorization. Eleven times in its history, the United States has formally declared war against foreign nations. These 11 U.S. war declarations encompassed five separate wars: the war with Great Britain declared in 1812; the war with Mexico declared in 1846; the war with Spain declared in 1898; the First World War, during which the United States declared war with Germany and with Austria-Hungary during 1917; and World War II, during which the United States declared war against Japan, Germany, and Italy in 1941, and against Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania in 1942. Some of the instances were extended military engagements that might be considered undeclared wars. These include the Undeclared Naval War with France from 1798 to 1800; the First Barbary War from 1801 to 1805; the Second Barbary War of 1815; the Korean War of 1950-1953; the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1973; the Persian Gulf War of 1991; global actions against foreign terrorists after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States; and the war with Iraq in 2003. With the exception of the Korean War, all of these conflicts received congressional authorization in some form short of a formal declaration of war. Other, more recent instances have often involved deployment of U.S. military forces as part of a multinational operation associated with NATO or the United Nations.

Military Pay Raise – IF10260

Military Pay Raise – IF10260 published on

The phrase “military pay raise,” frequently used in discussions of military compensation, is almost always a reference to the annual increase in basic pay for members of the uniformed services. By law, basic pay is automatically increased at the start of each calendar year by an amount linked to the change in the Employment Cost Index (ECI), although the President or Congress may override this statutory adjustment.

Date of Report: July 16, 2015
Pages: 2
Order Number: IF10260
Price: $5.95

To Order:  CLICK: HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART 
Email: congress@pennyhill.com 
Phone: 301-253-0881  

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.
 

New U.S.-Japan Defense Guidelines Deepen Alliance Cooperation – IN10265

New U.S.-Japan Defense Guidelines Deepen Alliance Cooperation – IN10265 published on

In recent years, the U.S.-Japan alliance has evolved in response to changes in Japanese defense policies and the regional security environment in East Asia. The alliance originally was constructed as an asymmetric arrangement—Japan hosts U.S. military bases in exchange for an unreciprocated security guarantee from the United States—but this partnership is shifting incrementally toward more equality. Japan boasts its own sophisticated defense assets and has taken steps that could lead to more involvement in U.S.-led military operations around the world. The United States, meanwhile, rhetorically has ratcheted up its commitment to defend Japan, including the small, uninhabited islands (called Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu in China) that Japan administers but China claims as its territory. The new bilateral Mutual Defense Guidelines (MDG), which the United States and Japan announced at a high-level meeting on April 27, provide policy guidance for more integrated U.S.-Japan defense cooperation. Yet, questions persist about the direction and extent of Japan's security policy reforms.

Date of Report: 4/28/2015
Pages: 3
Order Number: IN10265
Price: $5.95

To Order:  CLICK: HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART 

Email: congress@pennyhill.com 

Phone: 301-253-0881  

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.

What are the Department of Defense (DOD) Policies on Transgender Service? – IN10264

What are the Department of Defense (DOD) Policies on Transgender Service? – IN10264 published on

On December 18, 2014, then-Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the Department of Justice would take the position in litigation that the protection of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 extends to claims of discrimination based on an individual's gender identity, including transgender status. While Title VII does not apply to military personnel, for some, this change in the Administration's position has raised questions about U.S. law and DOD policies as they relate to transgender individuals. The word "transgender" does not appear in the United States Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, or in any DOD issuances. However, the term "transgender" is typically applied to individuals who do not identify or conform to their physical gender at birth and may include, but is not limited to, those who self-identify as transgender, transsexual, gender-queer, gender non-conforming, or cross-gender. For the purpose of diagnosis, the American Psychiatric Association classifies this condition as "gender dysphoria."

Date of Report: 4/28/2015
Pages: 2
Order Number: IN10264
Price: $5.95

To Order:  CLICK: HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART 

Email: congress@pennyhill.com 

Phone: 301-253-0881  

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.

FY2016 Military Construction Appropriations: President’s Request and House Markup Compared – IN10262

FY2016 Military Construction Appropriations: President’s Request and House Markup Compared – IN10262 published on

The Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments (Army, Navy, and Air Force) are empowered by statute (10 U.S.C. §2802) to carry out military construction projects, land acquisitions, and defense access road projects (as described under 23 U.S.C. §210) as are authorized by law. Such authorization is usually given in the annual National Defense Authorization Act. Military construction projects are defined in statute as including "surveys and site preparation; acquisition, conversion, rehabilitation, and installation of facilities; acquisition and installation of equipment and appurtenances integral to the project; acquisition and installation of supporting facilities (including utilities) and appurtenances incident to the project; and the planning, supervision, administration, and overhead incident to the project."

Date of Report: 4/24/2015
Pages: 4
Order Number: IN10262
Price: $5.95

To Order:  CLICK: HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART 

Email: congress@pennyhill.com 

Phone: 301-253-0881  

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.

The President’s FY2016 Military Construction Budget Request – IF10132

The President’s FY2016 Military Construction Budget Request – IF10132 published on

President Barack Obama submitted his FY2016 budget request to Congress in early February, 2015. As part of that submission, the President has requested $8.4 billion in funding for domestic and overseas military construction.

Date of Report: February 12, 2015
Pages: 2
Order Number: IF10132
Price: $5.95

To Order: 

CLICK:HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART

Email: congress@pennyhill.com

Phone: 301-253-0881 

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.

The Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA) – IF00004

The Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA) – IF00004 published on

The Defense Production Act of 1950 (DPA, 50 U.S.C. Appx § 2061 et seq.) confers upon the President a broad set of authorities to influence domestic industry in the interest of national defense. These authorities are primarily used by the Department of Defense (DOD) to enhance and support U.S. military preparedness and capabilities. They are also used across the federal government to improve domestic preparedness, response, and recovery from natural hazards, terrorist attacks, and other national emergencies.

Date of Report: November 6, 2013
Number of Pages: 2
Order Number: IF00004
Price: $5.95

To Order:

CLICK:HERE  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART

e-mail:congress@pennyhill.com

Phone: 301-253-0881

For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.

Primary Sidebar